A goalkeeper commits a handball offence if he handles the ball outside of the penalty area. The goalkeeper is only allowed to handle the ball within his own penalty area. As such, he cannot use his hands once he is outside of his penalty box. According the Laws of the Game, the goalkeeper cannot handle the ball if he is outside of his penalty area.
Goalkeepers have the freedom to handle the ball inside their own penalty area. Outside the penalty box, the rules on handling the ball are applicable to the keepers just like any outfield player.
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a handball offence (except for the goalkeeper within their penalty area) holds an opponent; impedes an opponent with contact; bites or spits at someone on the team lists or a match official; throws an object at the ball, opponent or match official, or makes contact with the ball with a held object; See also offences in Law 3 HANDLING THE BALL
Outside of the penalty area, the same handball rules apply to them as do to every other player. Although this seems straightforward, you need to be aware that there are a few exceptions to the rule allowing the goalie to handle the ball in their penalty area. Situations where the goalie cannot handle the ball in their penalty area:
Anthony Lopes red card because handball outside the penalty area (St Étienne vs Lyon)Anthony Lopes got red-carded after touching a ball outside the area at t...
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Opponents must remain outside the penalty area when a goal-kick takes place. Finally, a rule change has been made to try and combat time-wasting with substitutes.
Summary: The IFAB Laws of the Game defines handball as “the deliberate act of a player making contact with the ball with the hand or arm”. The goalkeeper is exempt from this rule inside their penalty area, but has the same restrictions as any other player outside their box. A ball off the shoulder is not handball.
If, by deliberately handling the ball outside his penalty area, the goalkeeper stops a promising attack, he should be cautioned (shown a yellow card). This is a parallel situation to a defender committing a deliberate (or tactical) foul in order to stop a promising attack, which also merits a caution.